許其正:同舟共濟

作者:許其正

2016年西子灣最後一次落日剛好碰到大船入港,景色壯觀。(方金媛/大紀元)

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再沒有比「共同海損」這個海商法上的名詞,更能適切闡釋「同舟共濟」的真義了。

天有不測風雲,人有旦夕禍福,誰能保證在海上航行,船不碰到意外?譬如碰上海嘯?譬如碰上暴風雨?譬如撞上暗礁?……

這時,船進水了。
這時,船向海底下沉了。
這時,船傾斜了。
這時,船陷於孤立無援了。
這時,滿船是愁雲慘霧和驚慌失措的臉孔了。

這時,該怎麼辦?

不要憂愁!不要驚慌失措!憂愁和驚慌失措更會把事情搞壞。
該想法補救。

船進水是由於船底破了,裂了,漏水了。那是很難補救得了的;沒法度。總是堵不住。——在海上,臨時哪裡去找工具,找材料?缺少工具,缺少材料,又怎能堵得住?補救得了?

SOS,SOS……求救的訊號誰說沒有發出去?早就發出去了,而且不斷地發出去,現在仍在發出去:但是就是沒有救援到來。

船依舊孤立無援……。

船進的水漸漸多了起來,漸漸向下沉,傾斜漸漸嚴重起來……。

難道就眼睜睜看著船沉沒下去?包括滿船的人,滿船的憂愁和驚慌失措?……

趕緊減輕船的重量負擔吧!船的重量負擔減輕了,它不就會浮在海面上,不會沉沒,以待救援了嗎?

對了。就是這樣!
那麼,開始丟東西吧!

但是,丟誰的好?
「丟你的!」
「不行!」

「丟妳的!」
「不行!為什麼不丟你自己的?」

誰的都捨不得丟棄,那麼,丟誰的好?難道不丟東西,丟人?

那怎麼行?人比東西寶貴,當然要丟東西了,怎麼能丟人?

對了!就是這個原則!以東西寶貴的程度和重量的大小為標準,最不寶貴、重量最大的先丟,然後次寶貴、重量次大的,依次類推,最寶貴,重量最輕的到最後才丟。

但是,最不寶貴、重量最大的東西的所有人,就活該吃虧,受最大損失?那是誰規定的?誰有這麼大的權力來做這樣的規定?

不是的。等大家都安全上岸了,計算大家損失的總數,然後大家共同負擔。這就是共同海損。這就是同舟共濟。這就是大家得以活存的最好辦法。否則,大家誰都捨不得丟自己的東西,怕吃虧受損,那麼大家便都要丟棄自己的生命了。

那麼,大家還是同舟共濟吧!在海上,在任何事情上……。

Sail on the same tack  HsuChiCheng

There is no term more than “general average” of maritime law suitable to expound “sail on the same tack”.

Accidence will happen. Who can guarantee the ship will not run into accidence while sailing on the sea? For instance, to run into tsunami, to meet with the rainstorm, to bump against the submerged reefs…

The ship is flood now.
The ship is sinking into the bottom of the sea now.
The ship is inclining now.
The ship is bogged down to live alone nobody else can help now.
The faces are lost in misery now and great panic now.

How will we do now?

Don’t worry! Don’t in great panic! It will do worst if you worry and in great panic.
You ought to try to repair.

The flood is owed to the bottom of the ship is broken, cracked, leaked. It’s difficult to repair, there is nothing to be done. It can’t to block. –Where to get tool and material temporarily on the sea? Lack of tool and material, how can you block it? How can you repair it?

SOS, SOS…Who said the message for help doesn’t send? It sent early, and sends incessantly, and sending till now; but there are not help to comes yet.

The ship is bogged down to live alone nobody else can help still…

The ship is flooding slowly, and sinking slowly, is more inclining now…

Could it be said that we see with open our eyes the ship be sunk down? Enclosed the person whole the ship, the worry and in misery and great panic whole the ship?

Hurry to reduce the weight of the bear of the ship! The bear of the weight of the ship is reduced, don’t it be float on the surface of the sea, will not sink, and wait for help?

All right! It’s it!
And then, try to throw the article!

But throw whose thing?
“Throw yours!”
“No!”

“Throw yours!”
“No! Why not throw yours?”

Whose thing is unwilling to throw, so that, is it the best to throw whose? Could it be said that don’t to throw the article, and throw person?

What can it be? Person is more value than the article, of course throw the article, how can we throw person?

All right! We follow this principle! The standard is the value and the weight, the worst and the most weight throw first, the next value and next weight to throw next, and so on, the most value and the thinnest throw the last.

However, is it ought to suffer and lost the person who posses the most the article of worst and most weight? Who prescribes it? Who has this great power to prescribe it?

No. After ashore safely, to count the sum of the lost, all will share. This is general average. This is sail on the same tack. This is the best means for reserve. If not, all are unwilling to throw the article, afraid of lost or be harm, then all will lost his life.

Then, we all had better to sail on the same tack! On the sea, on any matter…@

責任編輯:林芳宇

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