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英国入籍考试必读(Life in the UK):

莎士比亚作品——诗歌

莎士比亚d的《十四行诗》(Shakespeare’s Sonnets)(维基百科公共领域)

莎士比亚d的《十四行诗》(Shakespeare’s Sonnets)(维基百科公共领域)

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2015年,习近平访问英国期间,他在演讲中,引用了一句莎士比亚的名言,“凡是过去,皆为序章。(What’s past is prologue)”。此外,在互赠礼物时,伊丽莎白二世女王选择了一套莎士比亚的《十四行诗》,作为馈赠,送给了他。这一来一往,既显示出了莎士比亚的重要性,也显示了莎翁诗歌的地位。

莎士比亚一生创作了六部诗集,分别是《十四行诗》、《维纳斯和阿多尼斯》、《鲁克丽丝失贞记》、《热情的朝圣者》、《凤凰和斑鸠》、《爱人的怨诉》,其中,《十四行诗》最为著名。

《十四行诗》简介

莎士比亚《十四行诗》(Shakespeare’s Sonnets),共收录了154首诗歌,第一部分共有126首,主要是献给一位英俊青年;第二部分有28首,主要是献给一位黑色女士。所有的诗歌,至今不确定到底是为谁创作,没有具体的创作时间,首次发表是在1609年。

十四行诗是源于意大利民间的一种抒情短诗,文艺复兴时,盛行于整个欧洲。这种诗体,结构严谨,音节韵脚严格,往往会限制诗人的抒情。然而,莎士比亚的《十四行诗》却毫不拘谨,这些诗歌,自由奔放、赋予想像、感情充沛、延续了他作品一贯的天马行空。

莎士比亚的《十四行诗》赞扬了爱情、友情、真、善、美。在诗歌中,莎士比亚对爱、社会、人生、死亡、时间等,做了深刻的探索和思考。


《十四行诗》选摘

第15首

When I consider every thing that grows

Holds in perfection but a little moment,

That this huge stage presenteth naught but shows

Whereon the stars in secret influence comment;

 

When I perceive that men as plants increase,

Cheered and checked even by the selfsame sky;

Vaunt in their youthful sap, at height decrease,

And wear their brave state out of memory:

 

Then the conceit of this inconstant stay

Sets you most rich in youth before my sight,

Where wasteful time debateth with decay

To change your day of youth to sullied night;

 

And all in war with time for love for you,

As he takes from you, I engraft you new.

第15首(辜正坤译)

当我忖思,一切充满生机的事物

都只能兴旺短暂的时光,

在世界这大舞台上呈现的一切

都暗中受制于天上的星象;

 

当我看到人类像草木一样滋长,

任同一个苍天随意褒贬抑扬,

少壮时神采飞动,盛极而渐衰,

往日的鼎盛貌逐步被人遗忘。

 

正是这种对无常世界的忧思,

使我想到你充满青春朝气的形象,

而今肆虐的时间和朽腐为伍,

要化你青春的洁白为黑夜的肮脏。

 

为了与你相爱,我将向时间提出宣战,

它使你枯萎,我令你移花接木换新装。


第18首

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer’s lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimm’d;

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimm’d;

But thy eternal summer shall not fade

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;

Nor shall Death brag thou wander’st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st;

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

辜正坤译文:

或许我可用夏日将你作比方,

但你比夏日更可爱也更温良。

夏风狂作常会摧落五月的娇蕊,

夏季的期限也未免还不太长。

有时候天眼如炬人间酷热难当,

但转瞬又金面如晦常惹云遮雾障。

每一种美都终究会凋残零落,

或见弃于机缘,或受挫于天道无常。

然而你永恒的夏季却不会终止,

你优美的形象也永远不会消亡,

死神难夸口说你在它罗网中游荡,

只因你借我的诗行便可长寿无疆。

只要人口能呼吸,人眼看得清,

我这诗就长存,使你万世流芳。



第66首

Tir’d with all these, for restful death I cry

As to behold desert a beggar born,

And needy nothing trimm’d in jollity,

And purest faith unhappily forsworn,

 

And gilded honour shamefully misplac’d,

And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted,

And right perfection wrongfully disgrac’d,

And strength by limping sway disabled,

 

And art made tongue-tied by authority,

And folly-doctor-like-controlling skill,

And simple truth miscall’d simplicity,

And captive good attending captain ill:

 

Tir’d with all these, from these would I be gone,

Save that, to die, I leave my love alone.

 

第66首(梁实秋译)

这些我厌倦了,我要在死中安息,

例如看着天才生而为乞丐,

蠢货反倒穿戴得堂皇富丽,

最纯洁的誓约惨遭破坏,

 

金亮的荣誉被放错了地方,

处女的贞操被人横加污辱,

一代完人的名誉被人中伤,

懦者当权,强者徒呼负负,

 

学术摄于权势不敢发言,

愚昧假充内行对专家发号施令,

真诚被目为头脑简单,

良善服从邪恶的乱命;

 

这些我看厌了,我要离开这人世,

只是我若一死我的爱人形单影只。

作者:流筝 责任编辑:逸铭

英国入籍考试样题

William Shakespeare wrote a number of sonnets. What are sonnets?

  1. Poems of 14 lines
  2. Mystery plays
  3. Stories for Children
  4. Rhyming poems

复习:

Which play was written by Shakespeare?

  1. Before the Dawn
  2. Hamlet
  3. Freedom of Love
  4. Come, Walk with me

答案:

1,2



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