# 如何读懂“数学英文”来解答出数学应用题

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【大纪元2016年05月19日讯】学生们在解答数学应用题时常常在想：“怎样才能最好的理解这道题的题意，并把它分解成几个简单的问题？”“如何把这个包含数字的句子转换成我能理解的英文？”本文就来讨论如何破除数学应用题的神秘感。

Solving a mixture problem takes precision, but you can break it down with mathematical English as well. You have to remember these steps. 1) What is being mixed? 2) Organize the information. 3) Set up gallons of the ingredient for each container. 4) Form a mixture equation. 5) Solve and Check.

Q: How many gallons of a 60% solution must be added to 30 gallons of a 10% solution in order to produce a 20% solution?

We know so far that a 60% solution is being mixed with a 10% solution. We do NOT know how much of the 60% solution we have, so that is “x”. We do have 30 gallons of the 10% solution.

The next step is to ORGANIZE the information. One jar contains the 60% solution (x gallons). Another jar contains the 10% solution (30 gallons). There is a 20% solution jar that combines the two as well (x + 30). The last jar is the place where we want to have the 20% solution created. In the first jar, we have a 60% solution that houses 60% of the gallons of one liquid. In the other jar, we have 40% of the container having other ingredients.

Now, it is time to calculate the gallons of the ingredient in each of the containers by multiplying the total gallons of EACH container by the percentage listed for the container.   Next, you have 60% * x, 10% * 30, and 20% * (x+30). The verbal equation is (Ingredient in Jar 1) + (Ingredient in Jar 2) = (Ingredient in Jar 3). The equation using decimals is: .60x + 3 = .20x + 6. You would then subtract .20x from both sides and subtract 3 from both sides to get .40x = 3. Next, you divide both sides by .40 and x = 7.5.

Problem solved and you should check it by plugging the value for x back into the equation.  This is how easy math can be using mathematical English.   Let’s try this again in a different way.

“What is 75% of 300?”

How are we going to break this problem down? When a problem says “What”, that means “x”. The word “is” ALWAYS means “equals”. “Percentage” always means “out of 100 parts”, so the 75% converts to 75/100. “Of” means multiplication and the number 300 remains just that – a number. So, here is the updated version of this: x = (75/100) * 300. Now, 100 goes into 300 three times. So, you have 3 times 75 which equals 225. Problem solved.  This is how easy math can be using mathematical English. Let’s try this again in a different way.

35 is what percent of 80?

We now solve this problem: 80 goes into 100 1.25 times. So, we have 35 = x/1.25. We then cross multiply 35 * 1.25 and get 43.75 which is our answer. X = 43.75%. As you see, this process is again very simple. Visual learners will need to break problems down by drawing pictures or sketching out the process of the problem. Auditory learners just need to hear the correct conversion of the problem. Kinesthetic learners will need to get up and act out the problem or write on the boards themselves. This simple mathematical English process can be used on more advanced problems to provide clarity to the problem solver. • 美国大学理事会（College Board）去年4月公布“学术水平测验考试”（SAT，俗称美国高考）考试改革，全美报考周六（3月5日）SAT考试的高中生，将是新SAT的首批考生。在此特别提醒考生，新SAT的改变，以及非入学目的的考生，下次再考。
• 在美国的中国留学生人数已突破30万，远超过第2名的印度。随着中国留学生的增多，美国各大学教授发现，评量成绩优异的中国学生，来美国后在课堂上的表现与美国学生大不同，普遍欠缺批判性思维，无法完成分析性写作，也不知如何与同学及教授交谈。哥伦比亚大学教授林晓东（Lin Xiaodong，音译）认为，这是因为中国大陆的教育偏重灌输知识，而美国教育则强调如何学习。
• 俗称“美国高考”、大陆学生赴美留学必考的SAT考试，每年吸引数以十万计中国学生涌入香港应考，还催生一个产值过亿的贩卖试题“灰色产业链”。今年1月，主办单位已因试题外泄，取消在大陆和澳门的45场SAT考试。而最近改革的新SAT将于5月7日在香港进行亚洲首考，不过，外媒报导新题目已经外泄，本报调查多个来港报考团，发现不少大陆培训中心都以“真试题”招徕考生。香港SAT考试能否经得起“作弊”考验，备受关注。
• 日前大陆胡润百富发布的《2016留学趋势特别报告》告显示，近几年中国学生海外留学的年均增长率为19.06%。造成这个留学趋势的原因，大多数是为了逃避大陆僵化的高考制度，选择海外自由开放的教育体制，就读符合自己兴趣的学科。
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• 2020年以前，联邦教育部和ACAOM（针灸和东方医学认证委员会）对中医学科入学时的英语成绩要求是托福45分以上，而到了2020年，中医学科英语入学成绩要求托福80分以上！要求显着提高。有志于在美国做一名中医师、而英语又不太好的学生得抓紧时间报名了！