【宁姨加厨】海洋省份的饮食文化

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【大纪元2014年11月11日讯】加拿大东部省份的新不伦瑞克省、新斯科舍省和爱德华王子岛合组成了“海洋省份”。从西海岸飞到那里不错需要将近一天的时间(大约4700公里),但是这片美得令人窒息的土地实在值得!她有着戏剧化的锯齿状海岸线和加拿大境内数一数二风景如画的城镇。著名的地方包括卡博径(Cabot Trail),芬迪湾( The Bay of Fundy),佩吉湾(Peggy’s Cove)和绿山墙的安妮的家居( Anne of Green Gables’ home)。我们未曾住过那地却经常造访。
  
16世纪初法国人开始在这一带定居,据加拿大历史所,这地区算得上历史悠久。原住民已经在这里生活了6000多年,并教导早期移民如何猎野兽、打鱼、种水果和取枫糖浆。英格兰和法国人入侵的时候,有阿卡迪亚人(The Acadians)之称的早期法国人被迫离迁往美国南部,在那里他们被称为卡津人(Cajuns)。一些卡津人最终返回故居,并带来了他们的菜肴:炖肉浓汤( fricots)和碎鸡肉土豆或海鲜派(râpure )。新登陆的英格兰人则带来了玉米和烤豆,并将油炸和烧烤的烹饪方法引进此地。德国、英国、爱尔兰和苏格兰的移民们分享了酸菜、腌肉、腌鲱鱼和燕麦饼,对当地食物文化颇有贡献。
  
当地常见的菜肴有着很不常见的名字,例如Chow Chow是腌绿番茄;Solomon Gundy则是腌鲱鱼;咸牛肉煮胡萝卜卷心菜、芜菁和土豆是皮斯布丁(Pease pudding); Figgy Duff就是简单的蒸无花果布丁,配厚糖浆同吃;还有Blueberry Gruntshi 是含蓝莓酱和奶油的饺子状甜品。Poutine a Trou是带有咸味的甜派,内里是咸猪肉、土豆和苹果,外面铺上水果蜜饯或枫糖浆;Poutine Rapee是阿卡迪亚人的猪肉炖土豆;而Rapie Pie则是鸡肉炖土豆。Hodge Podge通常是春天的菜肴,由新鲜土豆加豌豆、青豆和胡萝卜炖出来的高汤。
  
当地的其他美食还有海鲜浓汤、鳕鱼舌、海豹鳍派、面包穈糊、红皮藻(可以当薯片吃的脆海苔)、蕨菜和枫糖浆。值得一提的是,新不伦瑞克省的Florenceville可是世界有名的炸薯条之都。
  
海洋省份的捕鱼业是一项重要工业:大西洋三文鱼、鲱鱼、鳟鱼,以及扇贝、虾、青口、蚝和龙虾等带壳类海产收获颇丰。虽然鳕鱼捕捞业在1992年崩溃,但当地人仍然允许钓鳕鱼,只是不准商业捕捞。海洋省份的另一个重头戏则是海苔。
  
该省份的肥沃田野和山谷带来闻名世界的爱德华王子岛土豆,新斯科舍省(Nova Scotia)Annapolis山谷的苹果,以及数不胜数的蓝莓、覆盆子、黑莓、草莓、梨、红莓、玉米和蕨菜等蔬果。
  
优越的啤酒和葡萄酒一样有。Propeller and Alexander Keith啤酒便在1982年诞生于哈利法克斯省。此外还有朗姆酒、伏特加、杜松子酒和Glenora Glen Breton 10年期的纯麦威士忌等烈酒。
  
海洋省份的龙虾更是闻名遐迩,不但在全加境内销售,还远销美国乃至海外,产量一度超过现今。龙虾曾经被认为是穷人的食物,渔夫的孩子们如果午餐带了龙虾三明治,就会被其他孩子取笑。今时不同往日,龙虾已经成为庆祝活动和特殊场合中、乐意和亲朋好友在餐厅里分享的珍贵美。
  
在店铺和餐厅里见到的龙虾都来自新斯科舍省,且供应量充足,所以全年有售、价格合理,令人高兴。
  
配酒推介:本杰明大桥潮汐湾白葡萄酒(Benjamin Bridge Tidal Bay)

配龙虾的餐酒可以是汽酒(sparkling wine)、香槟(Champagne)或沙当妮(Chardonnay)。想要再地道些,最好还是配海洋省份的葡萄酒。来自新斯科舍省的本杰明大桥酒庄的葡萄酒在卑诗省酒铺也可买到。这是混合了阿卡迪(L’Acadie)和沙当妮(Chardonnay)葡萄酿制而成的白酒,橘果气息绕梁,甜韵婉约。酒精浓度只有11%,清新芬香,酒韵留传,适合搭配壳类海鲜,包括龙虾和微热的菜肴,冷藏之后口感尤佳。@

=============

Epoch Times October 2014

Eating in The Maritimes
By Judith Lane

Canada’s eastern provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island–make up the Maritimes. While it takes almost a day to fly there from the West Coast (it’s about 4700 kilometers), it’s a land of breathtaking beauty with dramatic, jagged coastlines and some of the most picturesque towns in Canada. The best-known places include the Cabot Trail, the Bay of Fundy, Peggy’s Cove and Anne of Green Gables’ home. My family didn’t live in the Maritimes but we visited often.

The area has a long history by Canadian standards which date back to French settlements in the early 1600s. First Nations have existed here for over 6,000 years and taught early settlers about wild game, fish, fruit and maple syrup. The Acadians (French settlers), forced off their land when England and France invaded, went to the American south where they were known as Cajuns. Some eventually came back bringing with them dishes like fricots (stews) and râpure (grated potato and chicken or seafood pie). New Englanders brought corn and baked beans and introduced deep-frying and barbecuing while German, British, Irish and Scottish settlers shared sauerkraut, cured meats, pickled herring, oatcakes and more contributing to the food culture.

Some of the popular local dishes have unusual names. Chow chow is green tomato pickles; Solomon Gundy is pickled herring; Pease pudding is salt beef cooked with carrots, cabbage, turnip and potatoes; Figgy Duff, a simple, steamed pudding, is served with molasses; and Blueberry Grunt is a dumpling dessert with blueberry sauce and cream. Poutine à Trou, a salty-sweet pie made with salt pork, potatoes and apples, is topped off with fruit preserves or maple syrup; Poutine râpée is an Acadian pork-potato dish, and rapie pie is an Acadian poultry dish. Hodge Podge, eaten in springtime, is a stew made with new potatoes, peas, green beans and carrots cooked in milk broth.

Other local delicacies include seafood chowder, cod tongues, seal flipper pie, porridge bread (made with cold, cooked porridge), dulse (dried seaweed is eaten as a snack like potato chips), fiddleheads, and maple candy. Worth noting, Florenceville, New Brunswick is the French fry capital of the world.

Fishing is a huge industry in the Maritimes. Atlantic salmon, shad and trout and shellfish including Digby scallops, shrimp, mussels, oysters, and lobsters are all harvested. The cod fishing industry collapsed in 1992 but locals are still allowed to ‘jig’ for cod but not fish commercially. Seaweed is another part of the Maritime’s ocean bounty.

The Maritimes’ fertile fields and valleys produce world-famous Prince Edward Island potatoes and apples from Nova Scotia’s Annapolis Valley. Blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, pears, cranberries, corn and fiddleheads are plentiful.

The region is known for very good beer (think Propeller and Alexander Keith’s which began in Halifax in 1820) and wines as well as spirits like rum, vodka, gin and excellent Glenora Glen Breton 10 Year Old Single Malt Whiskey.

Lobster–the Maritimes best known export (it’s shipped across Canada, to the USA, and overseas)–was once even more abundant than today. It was considered ‘poor man’s’ food and school children made fun of fishermen’s kids who brought lobster sandwiches for lunch. Things are different today: lobster is prized for celebrations and special occasions and enjoyed in restaurants with friends and family.

The lobsters that we see in fish shops and restaurants around the city are from Nova Scotia. Happily they’re in plentiful supply, affordable and available year-round.

Enjoy lobster with sparkling wine, Champagne or Chardonnay. To be really authentic, pair it with a wine from the Maritimes. Two from Nova Scotia’s Benjamin Bridge winery
are available in BC Liquor Stores.

Wine pairing: Benjamin Bridge Tidal Bay
Fresh and aromatic, this expressive low-alcohol (11%) white wine from Nova Scotia made from L’Acadie and Chardonnay grapes is crisp and citrusy with a touch of sweetness. It’s ideal with shellfish including lobster, and dishes with a bit of heat. Serve well chilled.

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